Gen. 1:1 In the beginning [a period in eternity before the creative arts began; when God chose to create the materials needed to make and set in order the heavens and the earth, see Prov. 8:22,23; John 1: 1,2] God [the Hebrew word Elohim is the plural form of El, or Eloah, and implies the three persons taught in other Scriptures—God the Father, God the Son or Word, and God the Holy Spirit, cf. Mt. 3:16,17; John 1:1-3; 2 Cor. 13:14; Eph. 3:9; 1 John 5:7] created [Hebrew bara; to bring into existence something from materials that did not previously exist; only God can make something from nothing; during the days of creation, He used these materials to set in order the perfect pattern for the heavens, the earth, and all living things including man and woman, Ps. 33:6,7] the heavens and the earth [the whole universe; the world and everything in it, Acts 17:24].
Gen. 1:2 And the earth [begins with the earth] was without form, and void; [the materials were present, but they needed to be shaped and made into pattern, design, and order, Jer. 4:23] and darkness was upon the face of the deep [this was before God made light and separated it from darkness, vs. 4]. And the Spirit of God [Gen. 6:3; Job 26:13; Ps. 33:6; 104:30] moved upon the face of the waters [continued brooding over the waters as a hen broods over her eggs and chicks, ready to begin work on these elements to bring order to a new creation].
Gen. 1:3 And God said, [the power behind all creation; His words are all powerful; all through creation, He spoke and it happened. “By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and all the host of them by the breath of His mouth” Ps. 33:6] “Let there be light”; and there was light [God commanded light to come out of the darkness. Paul describes this, “For it is the God who commanded light to shine out of darkness who has shown in our hearts...” 2 Cor. 4:6].
Gen. 1:4 And God saw the light, that it was good, [all that God created was good, and He recognized it often during creation, see vss. 12,18,21,25; when creation was finished it was said, “And God saw everything that He had made, and behold, it was very good” vs. 31] and God divided the light from the darkness [light reveals all the other beauties of creation; light is positive in nature and is used throughout the word of God to describe God and those who follow Him, Isa. 2:5; 1 Tim. 6:16; 1 John 1:5-7].
Gen. 1:5 And God called the light Day, and He called the darkness Night [this was produced as God made the earth to rotate daily around its axis]. And the evening and the morning were the first day [some have thought each day to be a long period of time, but this does not fit the context; it seems that a natural day is intended because evening and morning are mentioned; the Oriental usage is chosen, from sunset to sunset rather than saying day and night as we know it today].
Gen. 1:6 And God said, “Let there be a firmament [expansion or the expanse; the atmosphere called heaven, vs. 8; the space that is occupied by the whole solar system, Job 26:7; 37:18; Ps. 19:1; Jer. 10:12] in the midst of the waters, [the atmosphere became a divider of the waters] and let it divide the waters from the waters“ [the lighter waters that spread over the earth were drawn up and the heavier waters remained below to form the seas].
Gen. 1:7 And God made the firmament, [see vs. 6] and divided the waters [heavier waters] which were under the firmament from the waters [lighter waters] which were above the firmament; and it was so [Ps. 148:4; Prov. 8:28; everything responded to God’s power].
Gen. 1:8 And God called the firmament [see vs. 6] Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day [see vs. 5].
Gen. 1:9 And God said, “Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, [to form oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers; the Psalmist describes how this happened: “You covered it with the deep as with a garment; the waters stood above the mountains. At Your rebuke they fled; at the voice of Your thunder they hastened away. They went up over the mountains; they went down into the valleys, to the place which You founded for them. You have set a boundary that they may not pass over, that they may not return to cover the earth” Ps. 104:6-9] and let the dry land appear“; [earth, vs. 10] and it was so [everything responded to God’s power].
Gen. 1:10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters He called Seas [only God could make this globe, composed of earth and water, to co-exist in perfect harmony]. And God saw that it was good [there were no flaws in His creative power. Solomon wrote: “All the rivers run into the sea, yet the sea is not full,” Eccl. 1:7].
Gen. 1:11 And God said, “Let the earth put forth [produce; instead of speaking into existence instant grass, herbs, and fruit trees, He gave them power to grow and reproduce from seed after their own kind; thus today, in every season these three major classes of the vegetable kingdom respond to the powerful command of God] grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit trees yielding fruit after their kind, [Jesus taught: “For every tree is known by its own fruit. For men do not gather figs from thorns; nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush,” Lk. 6:44] whose seed is in itself, upon the earth;” [each tree has in its fruit a future tree] and it was so [all responded to God].
Gen. 1:12 And the earth brought forth [produced] grass, and herb yielding seed after their kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after its kind [compare vs. 11]. And God saw that it was good [God was pleased with His work; we should be pleased when we successfully accomplish work for God].
Gen. 1:13 And the evening and the morning were the third day [see vs. 5].
Gen. 1:14 And God said, “Let there be lights [the sun and moon called the greater and lesser lights, and the stars, vs. 16] in the firmament [in the great expanse above] of the heavens [these lights seem to be close as we look into the heavens, but they are vast distances away] to divide the day from the night; [the sun dispels darkness to the point that light appears, the moon with a lesser light from the sun, cannot overpower the darkness; both light and darkness appear as the earth completes a revolution on its axes in approximately twenty-four hours] and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years; [we set our clocks, calendars, spring, summer, autumn, and winter by God’s powerful lights; Ps. 74:16,17; 104:19,20].
Gen. 1:15 and let them be for lights in the firmament [the great expanse] of heaven to give light upon the earth”; and it was so.
Gen. 1:16 And God made two great lights; the greater light [the sun] to rule the day, and the lesser light [the moon] to rule the night [“To Him who made great lights, for His mercy endures forever—the sun to rule by day, for His mercy endures forever; the moon and stars to rule by night, for His mercy endures forever,” Ps. 136:7-9]. He made the stars also [“the heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament shows His handiwork,” Ps. 19:1].
Gen. 1:17 And God set them [the greater and lesser lights and stars] in the firmament [the great expanse] of heaven to give light upon the earth,
Gen. 1:18 and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness [Jeremiah wrote: “Thus says the Lord, who gives the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and stars for a light by night,...” Jer. 31:35]. And God saw that it was good [this was good as it had been in the other works of creation, see vss. 12,21,25].
Gen. 1:19 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day [see vs. 5].
Gen. 1:20 And God said, “Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creatures that have life, [the waters are filled with thousands of living creatures, some are too small for the human eye to see, however, God has given each a design and pattern for life] and birds that may fly above the earth in the open firmament [expanse] of heaven.“
Gen. 1:21 And God created [Hebrew bara, to bring into existence something that did not previously exist, see vs. 1] the great sea-monsters, [whales, sharks, crocodiles and others] and every living creature that moves, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, [“O Lord, how manifold are Your works! In wisdom You have made them all. The earth is full of Your possessions—This great and wide sea, in which are innumerable teeming things, living things both small and great. There the ships sail about; and there is that Leviathan which You have made to play there,” Ps. 104:24-26] and every winged bird after its kind. And God saw that it was good [creatures of the sea and air are so marvelous that they stagger human imagination; only God can fully see that it is good].
Gen. 1:22 And God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, [reproduction is highly successful, and species (as a general rule) are able to continue their existence in abundance] and let birds multiply on the earth“ [just look around and you can see that this happened].
Gen. 1:23 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day [See vs. 5].
Gen. 1:24 And God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures after their kind: [a general term for domesticated animal life] cattle and creeping things [things that crawl regardless of size] and beasts of the earth, after their kind;” and it was so.
Gen. 1:25 And God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, [all wild animals were made so that they could continue to reproduce and bear the same species] and the cattle after their kind, and everything that creeps [large and small things that crawl] on the ground after its kind. And God saw that it was good.
God Makes Man
Gen. 1:26 And God said, “Let Us [the plural is used, “let Us,” “Our image,” and “Our likeness;” the plural persons were present here and later in God’s word, Mt. 28:19; John 1:2; 2 Cor. 13:14; Heb. 1:2] make man [a physical body; “And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground,” Gen. 2:7] in Our image, after Our likeness; [after making man a physical body, God now makes him a soul like God and in His image; this sets man apart from all other things that God created, Acts 17:26,28,29; Eph. 4:24; Col. 3:10] and let them have dominion [God gave man a mind capable of governing and ruling over all living things in His creation, Ps. 8:3-6] over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the heavens, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth” [only one who has a soul made in God’s image could do this].
Gen. 1:27 So God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; [see vs. 26] male and female He created them [God created them capable of being one flesh, Gen. 5:2; Mal. 2:15; Mt. 19:4,5].
Gen. 1:28 And God blessed them, [they were under God’s special care] and God said to them, “Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish [fill] the earth, and subdue it; [utilize its many resources for your necessities and growth] and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over every living thing that moves [creeps] on the earth“ [without a doubt, man is the star of creation as the one who was made in God’s image].
Gen. 1:29 And God said, “Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is made on the face of all the earth, and every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for food [in verses 11 and 12 of this chapter, God let the earth grow grass, herbs, and fruit trees; two of these are now assigned to man for food].
Gen. 1:30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the heavens, and to every thing that creeps on the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for food”; [God not only made man and all the other living things, but He provided them with food: “The eyes of all look expectantly to You, and You give them their food in due season,” Ps. 145:15] and it was so.
Gen. 1:31 And God saw everything that He had made, and behold, it was very good [this was true with His creation, and the same can be said about His provision for man’s salvation; there is no way that we can ever thank God enough for all His physical and spiritual blessings, 1 Thes. 5:17,18]. And the evening were the sixth day [see vs. 5].
Gen. 2:1 Thus the heavens and the earth and all the host of them were finished [by His powerful words, God completed His work. “By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and all the host of them by the breath of His mouth” Ps. 33:6].
Gen. 2:2 And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had made; [day by day His work was accomplished until it was finished] and He rested [not in the sense of resting from being tired, because He “neither faints nor is weary,” Isa. 40:28, but rather that He ceased from working] on the seventh day from all His work which He had made.
Gen. 2:3 And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, [hallowed or made it holy; God would later assign this seventh day as a day of rest for His people Israel, Ex. 20:9-11] because that in it He rested [ceased] from all His work which God had created and made [during the six days of creation].
Gen. 2:4 These are the generations [the history or account] of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, [only God could guide Moses to give such an accurate and beautiful account of God’s work] in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens, [by faith we believe that God had the power to bring into existence all these things from nothing. “By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that the things which are seen were not made of things which are visible,” Heb. 11:3].
Gen. 2:5 and every plant of the field before it was [not yet] in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew [instead of creating the soil with seed, it seems that God made the field with full grown plants and herbs; just as God made a full grown man, He made full grown plants and herbs, Gen. 1:12; Ps. 104:14]. For the LORD God had not caused it to rain on the earth, [God made the plants and herbs before the process of nature (that requires rain) had developed] and there was not a man to till the ground [also before there was a farmer to sow the seed, cf. Job 38:25-28].
Gen. 2:6 But there went up a mist from the earth, [vapors were drawn up and became condensed] and watered the whole face of the ground [as condensation formed, it fell to the earth and watered the full grown plants and herbs made by the Lord].
Gen. 2:7 And the LORD God [Jehovah Elohim] formed man of the dust of the ground, [this was man’s physical body] and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; [“The Spirit of God has made me, and the breath of the Almighty gives me life,” Job 33:4] and man became a living soul [God not only gave man physical life, but also spiritual life; He gave him a soul made in God’s image, Gen. 1:26; thus, only man has an eternal soul that returns to God at death, Eccl. 12:7; God made man as His eternal masterpiece: “For you have formed my inward parts;... I will praise You for I am fearfully and wonderfully made,” Ps. 139:13,14].
Gen. 2:8 And the LORD God planted [specially prepared] a garden [this is the garden of the Lord, see Gen. 13:10] eastward [the exact location is not known; somewhere east of Palestine] in Eden, [means pleasantness or delight] and there He put the man whom He had formed [God designed and built the first home for man as a garden, a true paradise, and He put man there to cultivate it, Gen. 2:15; there has never been a greater architect and builder as God].
Gen. 2:9 And out of the ground the LORD God made to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food [these trees were beautiful in color, form, and lovely to see; they also provided food]. The tree of life was also in the midst of the garden, [this tree was symbolic of immortal life and was capable of sustaining life forever, Gen. 3:22; this tree that was lost in Eden’s paradise can be found (through Jesus) in heaven’s paradise, Rev. 22:2,14] and the tree of knowledge of good and evil [this tree represented a test tree for Adam and Eve’s obedience; for to eat and disobey meant death—thus, this is the tree of death, opposite to the tree of life].
Gen. 2:10 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden, [water is one of the requirements to have a lush and beautiful garden] and from there it was parted, and became into four heads [riverheads or branches].
Gen. 2:11 The name of the first is Pi´son, [means “the springer” or “the full-flowing”] that is the one which encompasses the whole land of Haví-lah, where there is gold [a country that produces gold; many opinions have been given, but it cannot be know with certainty its location].
Gen. 2:12 And the gold of that land [Haví-lah] is good. There is Bdellium [it is supposed to be either a precious stone, or a costly gum found in India and Arabia; the manna given later to Israel was a color compared to Bdellium, Num. 11:7] and the onyx stone [since onyx means pale or delicate in color, some have thought this to be either beryl, onyx, Sardonyx, Sardius, or emerald].
Gen. 2:13 And the name of the second river is Gi´hon: [means “the bursting” or “the gusher”] the same is one that encompasses the whole land of E-thi-o´pi-a [Cush].
Gen. 2:14 And the name of the third river is Hid´de-kel; [thought by many to be the same as the Tigris] the one which goes toward the east of As-syrí-a [Assyria was first located on the bank of the Tigris]. And the fourth river is the Eu-phra´tes [means “the sweet,” a river running near the vicinity of the Tigris; it begins in the Armenian mountains and flows 1,780 miles (in a southeastern direction) to the Persian Gulf].
Gen. 2:15 And the LORD God took the man, [Adam] and put him in the garden of Eden to dress and to keep it [to tend and cultivate it].
Gen. 2:16 And the LORD God commanded the man, [this represents God’s will and God’s law to man; obeying God’s commandments has been essential in all generations] saying, “Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; [without disobedience].
Gen. 2:17 but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, [a tree in the midst of the garden for a test of obedience] you shall not eat of it [shall not eat of its fruit; the fruit is not identified, and those who suggest it was an apple have added to God’s word]. For in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die“ [the serpent will lie to Eve and tell her that she would NOT die, Gen. 3:4, but he was (and is) a liar—this was a tree of death to anyone who would eat].
Gen. 2:18 And the LORD God said, “It is not good that the man should be alone; [this is the first thing mentioned in God’s creation that He said is not good] I will make him [Adam] a help meet [a helper corresponding to him; a helper comparable; fit or suitable] for him“
[cf. 1 Cor. 11:8,9].
Gen. 2:19 And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field and every fowl of the air, [the writer reviews how God had made all of these living things to show that there was something more needed for man] and brought them to Adam to see what he would call them [this procedure showed the power of mind that God had given Adam, and that nothing had been made to relieve his loneliness, Gen. 2:18]. And whatever Adam called every living creature, that was its name [this ability reflects back to the greatness of his Creator].
Gen. 2:20 And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the birds of the heavens, and to every beast of the field [this was not a lowly simple creature needing to evolve a few million years to be highly intelligent, because God created him with the ability to name the cattle, birds, and beasts]. But for Adam there was not found a help meet [a helper corresponding to him; a helper comparable; fit or suitable] for him [there was a need for God to make someone special like Adam, and with an eternal soul; just as the animals had their female companions, Adam needed his].
Gen. 2:21 And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam, [a sleep perhaps compared to an anesthetic during surgery today] and he slept: and He [God] took one of his [Adam’s] ribs, and closed up the flesh in its place [the first record of major surgery and God was the divine surgeon].
Gen. 2:22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man made He a woman, [Adam was made from the dust; woman was made from man, 1 Cor. 11:8,12] and brought her to the man.
Gen. 2:23 And Adam said, “This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; [God used great wisdom by making woman from man; if He had made her separate and apart from man, there would not have been the oneness intended; Adam felt that she was a part of himself; thus, the command to be one flesh was made possible, vs. 24; Mt. 19:5,6] she shall be called Woman, [Hebrew: Isha; this word literally means, man-ess, or she-man] because she was taken out of Man“ [Hebrew: Ish for man; Isha for woman].
Gen. 2:24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and mother, [when choosing marriage, a couple must be mature enough to build this relationship on their own; they still love their parents and can even seek their advice at special times, but each couple must accept the responsibility of building their own home and making their own decisions. Thus, there is the physical leaving, but even more, they must assume, on their own, the full responsibility of marriage as to commitment, affection, and faithfulness; Mt. 19:5; Mk. 10:6-9; Eph. 5:31; cf. Mal. 2:15,16; 1 Cor. 6:16] and shall cleave [cling or be joined] to his wife, [as if they are glued together; committed to the point that they will not allow anyone to separate them, Mt. 19:6] and they shall be one flesh [considered as one body and striving always to be equally concerned about their marriage; in the intimate relationship of their marriage, reproduction can occur, giving life to one who exactly resembles themselves; Jesus taught that they are one flesh to the point that they must not be separated, Mt. 19:5,6].
Gen. 2:25 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed [sin had not been committed and their bodies were so much one with each other; there was no guilt or memory of the improper use of their bodies—just purity; sin will eventually destroy this purity and will bring guilt and shame, Gen. 3:7-11].
Gen. 3:1 Now the serpent [called a dragon, Rev. 20:2, representing Satan the evil one; Jesus described him as a murderer and father of lies, John 8:44] was more subtle [cunning, crafty, 2 Cor. 11:3] than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said to the woman, [chose to deceive woman to reach the man, 1 Tim. 2:14; cf. Rom. 5:12; 1 Cor. 15:21,22] “Has God indeed said, ‘You shall not eat of every tree of the garden’?“ [begins his deception by throwing doubt on God’s reputation; this evil one comes across as an angel of light, 2 Cor. 11:14, who is present to rescue Eve from the depriving hand of God; the devil always tries to make his victims believe that he has something better to offer, but he is really seeking to devour, 1 Pet. 5:8].
Gen. 3:2 And the woman said to the serpent, [see vs. 1] “We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden; [first mentions the generosity of God; there will be only one exception to all the trees of the garden, Gen. 2:16,17].
Gen. 3:3 but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, [the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, Gen. 2:17] God has said, ’You shall not eat of it, [its fruit] neither shall you touch it, lest you die‘ “ [both eating and touching are forbidden; we can have nothing to do with sin and still please God, Gen. 2:17].
Gen. 3:4 And the serpent [see vs. 1] said to the woman, “You shall not surely die [the serpent put himself above God and lied to Eve; no wonder Jesus said, “there is no truth in him, when he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own resources, for he is a liar and the father of it,” John 8:44].
Gen. 3:5 For God knows that in the day you eat of it, [pretends to be protecting Eve’s rights from God] then your eyes [understanding] shall be opened, and you shall be like God, knowing good and evil“ [it was true that her eyes and understanding would be opened to know good and evil, but he failed to tell her the awful consequences this would bring; the serpent failed to mention that she would surely die, since he had already denied that this would happen, vs. 4].
Gen. 3:6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, [the lust of the flesh tempted Eve] and that it was pleasant to the eyes, [then came the lust of the eyes] and a tree to be desired to make one wise, [the third temptation involved the pride of life; centuries later, these three avenues of temptation were used against Jesus, Mt. 4:3-10, and described by John as being of the world, 1 John 2:16] she took of its fruit, [the forbidden fruit] and ate, and gave also to her husband with her, and he ate [thus, this first couple disobeyed God and brought death to their lives; James describes the awful process of sin: “But each one is tempted when he is drawn away by his own desires and enticed. Then when desire has conceived, it gives birth to sin; and sin, when it is full-grown, brings forth death,” Jas. 1:14,15].
Gen. 3:7 And the eyes of both of them were opened, [the eyes of their minds and understanding, and their physical eyes could see that something was different; sin always has a harvest that follows, because we reap what we sow, Gal. 6:7,8] and they knew that they were naked; [they now feel shame and dishonor; sin has destroyed purity and has brought guilt; this couple is now afraid to face God, vss. 8,10] and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons [this first clothing was made in an effort to cover their guilt].
Gen. 3:8 And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day, [God had previously communicated with this couple when He gave them instructions; now He appears to further talk with them, but now He is an unwanted guest] and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God among the trees of the garden [because of their nakedness and guilt, they were afraid and did not want God to find them, vs. 10; this couple learned that they could not hide from God, nor can anyone else: “Where can I go from Your Spirit? Or where can I flee from Your presence? If I ascend into heaven, You are there; if I make my bed in hell, behold, You are there. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, even there Your hand shall lead me, and Your right hand shall hold me,” Ps. 139:7-10].
Gen. 3:9 And the LORD God called to Adam, and said to him, “Where are You?“ [God knew where he was hiding, but He wanted Adam to respond to this question, talk about what he had done, and to deal with his guilt; every accountable soul needs to answer this question in a spiritual sense, “Where are you?”].
Gen. 3:10 And he said, “I heard Your voice in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked; and I hid myself“ [before committing sin, they were not ashamed of being naked, Gen. 2:25, but now it is different].
Gen. 3:11 And He said, “Who told you that you were naked? [this reminded them of the serpent]. Have you eaten of the tree, of which I commanded you that you should not eat?“ [how guilty and ashamed they must have been when they heard this question; we must never lose sight of the fact that we too must answer to God, Acts 17:31; 2 Cor. 5:10].
Gen. 3:12 And the man said, [trying to defend himself] “The woman whom You gave to be with me, [he may have tried to place some of the blame on God for giving him the woman] she gave me of the tree, [the tree of knowledge of good and evil, Gen. 2:17] and I ate“ [look what she made me do; could not deny doing it, but he tried to shift the blame from himself to the woman; it is easy to always blame someone else for our sins; as a general rule, we don’t like to say, “I was wrong,” “it was all my fault,” “I have sinned,” and “forgive me”].
Gen. 3:13 And the LORD God said to the woman, “What is this that you have done?“ [she must now give an account for her disobedience, but ignores the charge that she gave the fruit of the forbidden tree to her husband]. And the woman said, “The serpent [called a dragon, Rev. 20:2, representing Satan the evil one; Jesus described him as a murderer and father of lies, John 8:44] beguiled me, [caused me to forget, to err, or to go astray] and I ate” [she shifts the blame to the serpent; she must admit that she ate, but it wasn’t her fault—she was beguiled; there doesn’t seem to be any repentance in her heart].
God’s Curse and Promise
To the Serpent
Gen. 3:14 And the LORD God said [as a judge passes sentence] to the serpent, [see vs. 13] “Because you have done this, [allowed Satan to appear in your form] you are cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; on your belly you shall go, and you shall eat dust all the days of your life [because the serpent permitted the devil or Satan to use it for this evil task, God cursed it by changing its nature from being upright to crawling and eating dust].
Gen. 3:15 And I will put enmity between you [the serpent, but specifically the devil who appeared in the form of the serpent] and the woman, [beginning with Eve] and between your seed [those who would follow the evil ways of the devil] and her Seed [speaking of Jesus who would come through the seed of woman; specifies “her seed” rather than the “seed of man,” because a man will not be involved; it will be a woman who conceives by the Holy Spirit to bring Jesus, the Savior, Mt. 1:20,21]. He [Jesus, the Seed of woman] shall bruise your head, [a death blow to Satan; only Jesus could overcome sin and death, and make salvation possible for those who would obey and serve Him] and you shall bruise His heel“ [the bruising of the heal must refer to the human suffering that Jesus would experience while dying on the cross to deal a head blow to Satan; such a bruise would not be permanent because Jesus would come forth from the grave to life, Gal. 4:4,5; cf. Rom. 16:20].
Gen. 3:16 To the woman [Eve, representing all women in the future] He said, “I will greatly multiply your sorrow and your conception; [pain involving the months of pregnancy] in sorrow [pain] you shall bring forth children; [pain while in labor and when giving birth; Jesus referred to this, "A woman, when she is in labor, has sorrow because her hour has come; but as soon as she has given birth to the child, she no longer remembers the anguish, for joy that a human being has been born into the world” John 16:21; the modern medical world has helped remove some of the pain associated with pregnancy and childbirth, but they cannot remove it all; however, this childbirth will be used to bring the Savior to the world, therefore, Paul wrote that woman will be saved in childbearing, 1 Tim. 2:15] and your desire shall be to your husband, and he shall rule over you“ [woman had taken the lead in committing sin, and then she gave the same forbidden fruit to her husband; now she must be in subjection to him as her head, 1 Cor. 11:3; Eph. 5:22,23; 1 Pet. 3:1; 1 Tim. 2:14].
Gen. 3:17 And to Adam He said, “Because you have hearkened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten of the tree, of which I commanded you, saying, ’You shall not eat of it‘: [Adam was not deceived, but chose to eat the forbidden fruit when Eve offered it to him, Gen. 3:6] cursed is the ground [outside the garden] for your sake; [because of your sin] in sorrow [painful labor] you shall eat of it all the days of your life [the life of a farmer, even today, is a battle with nature; he or she must deal with all kinds of weeds, grasses, diseases, and the uncertainty of the weather].
Gen. 3:18 Thorns also and thistles shall it [the ground] bring forth to you, [to produce fruit from the ground, man will have to labor to overcome the thorns and thistles or things that seek to choke out the good plants, Mt. 13:7] and you shall eat the herb of the field [rather than the fruit of paradise that he had no doubt enjoyed, Gen. 2:16].
Gen. 3:19 In the sweat of your face [evidence of hard work; perhaps the face shows this more readily] shall you eat bread, [your food, 2 Thes. 3:10] till you return to the ground; [Adam must now realize the certainty of physical death; he is now a mortal being, appointed to death; “And it is appointed for men to die once,..” Heb. 9:27; The poet: “Dust thou art, and to dust returnest, was not spoken of thy soul”] for out of it you were taken; for dust you are, and to dust you shall return“ [Eccl. 12:7].
Gen. 3:20 And Adam called his wife’s name Eve, [life or living] because she was the mother of all living [she will give birth and life to the first children, Gen. 4:1,2,25, and thus begin a line of seed that will extend many centuries into the future to the end of time; even God’s Son will be born through the seed of woman in the future, Gen. 3:15].
Gen. 3:21 And the LORD God made for Adam and his wife coats of skins, [the first animals recorded as dying because this couple sinned; may have been the skins from animals that were used for sacrifice, Gen. 4:4] and clothed them [to cover their bodies from shame, Gen. 3:7, and to protect them].
Gen. 3:22 And the LORD God said, “Behold, the man has become as one of Us, [the Divine Persons, Gen. 1:26] to know good and evil [only in the sense of becoming acquainted with good and evil that they evidently did not know in their innocent state; their eyes of understanding have now been opened toward good and evil, Gen. 3:7]. And now, lest he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of life, [in the midst of the garden, Gen. 2:9] and eat, and live forever“—[because of disobedience and death, this couple has lost their right to the tree of life; the two trees in the midst of the garden had represented life and death, and Adam and Eve had chosen death; now the tree of life is forbidden to them; man’s only hope of this tree of life is to be given a right to it through Jesus in heaven: “Blessed are those who do His commandments, that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter through the gates into the city” Rev. 22:14; cf. Rev. 2:7; 22:2].
Gen. 3:23 therefore the LORD God sent him [Adam] forth from the Garden of Eden to till the ground [with a curse on it, Gen. 3:17] from where he was taken [Gen. 2:7; he would till this ground in sweat and someday return to it, vs. 19].
Gen. 3:24 So He drove out the man; [with his wife Eve, implied] and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherú-bims [the entrance to this beautiful garden was guarded by this order of angels; the same order of angels used on the mercy seat hovering over the ark of the covenant, Ex. 25:20; cf. 1 Kgs. 6:25-28; Heb. 1:7] and a flaming sword which turned every way to keep the way of the tree of life [God made sure that the man did not enter this garden; the tree of life was securely guarded because of sin and disobedience].
Gen. 4:1 And Adam knew [intimately or sexually] Eve his wife and she conceived [no conception had been a part of their time in the garden] and bore Cain, [means acquisition or possession] and said, “I have gotten a man from the LORD“ [God had promised that she would bring forth children in pain, Gen. 3:16; she now recognizes God as the giver of life in this first birth].
Gen. 4:2 And she again bore his brother Abel [means uncertain; some have suggested that his name means: vanity, breath, and vapor]. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, [a shepherd] but Cain [see vs. 1] was a tiller of the ground [a farmer].
Gen. 4:3 And in the process [course] of time it came to pass, that Cain [see vs. 1] brought of the fruit of the ground an offering to the LORD [it was natural for Cain to want to bring the fruit of the ground since he was a farmer, but was this what God had commanded? God did not consider his sacrifice excellent as He did Able’s, Heb. 11:4; God did not have respect for this offering, vs. 5].
Gen. 4:4 And Abel, [see vs. 2] also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of their fat [he brought the best that he had for this offering]. And the LORD had respect for Abel and to his offering [God was first pleased with Abel because he had faith; then God was also pleased with his offering because it was excellent, “by faith Abel offered to God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain...” Heb. 11:4; since faith comes by hearing the word of God, Rom .10:17, it is implied that Abel offered what God had commanded; both Abel and his sacrifice pleased God].
Gen. 4:5 But for Cain [see vs. 1] and his offering He did not respect [his faith was evidently lacking compared to that of Abel, and this reflected against both Cain and his offering]. And Cain was very wroth, [angry because of the rejection] and his countenance fell [his face appeared angry; he did not hide his feelings that were motivated by anger; instead of repenting and seeking forgiveness, he became angry against God and his brother Abel, vs. 8].
Gen. 4:6 And the LORD said to Cain, [see vs. 1] “Why are you wroth? [angry] and why has your countenance fallen? [why does your face show anger?].
Gen. 4:7 If you do well, will you not be accepted? [God was not showing partiality between the brothers; if Cain and his offering had been right and offered by faith, God would have accepted him] and if you do not do well, [he had not done well, vs. 5] sin [missing the mark like an archer] lies [is couching] at the door [like a wile animal ready to attack; Peter used the roaring lion to describe the evil one, 1 Pet. 5:8]. And to you shall be its desire, [sin would continue to seek, and have a desire to destroy Cain] and you shall rule over it“ [you must not let it, you must master it].
Gen. 4:8 And Cain [see vs. 1] talked with Abel [see vs. 2] his brother; [it seems that he asked him to have a friendly walk, but there were evil intentions in his heart, “not as Cain who was of the wicked one and murdered his brother. And why did he murder him? Because his works were evil and his brother’s righteous,” 1 John 3:12] and it came to pass, when they were in the field, [probably sought a secret place] that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew [killed] him [the first recorded murder].
Gen. 4:9 And the LORD said to Cain, [see vs. 1] “Where is Abel [see vs. 2] your brother?“ [the same type of question asked Adam and Eve when they sinned and hid themselves from God, Gen. 3:9; God asked this question so He could deal with the murder that Cain had committed]. And he said, “I do not know [can you imagine him lying to God? This lie was told in an effort to cover up the sin he had committed against his brother, but like his parents, he could not hide anything from God, Gen. 3:8]. Am I my brother’s keeper?“ [the answer to this question is “yes.” There is a sense in which we are all our brother’s keeper; this is especially true in the life of Christians, cf. 1 Cor. 8:11-13].
Gen. 4:10 And He said, “What have you done? [God challenges Cain to think on this question and his sin] the voice of your brother’s blood cries to Me from the ground [God knew about his awful sin, and the voice of blood was crying out for punishment for such an awful murder].
Gen. 4:11 And now you are cursed from the earth, [the first curse on a human being; the serpent and the ground had received a curse, but now it is on a man; Cain did not deny what he had done, because he realized that God fully knew of his awful act against his brother] which has opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand.
Gen. 4:12 When you till the ground, it shall not henceforth yield to you its strength [this curse regarding the ground is more severe than the one spoken to Adam, Gen. 3:17-19; this curse goes beyond the thorns, thistles, and labor by the sweat of the face]. A fugitive and a vagabond [wanderer] you shall be on the earth“ [he is expelled from his family with no fixed residence on the earth; the ground that he had depended on as a farmer will not grow food for him, and he must move about on the earth].
Gen. 4:13 And Cain said to the LORD, “My punishment is greater than I can bear [sin has awful consequences in all ages of time; the ultimate wages of sin is death and corruption, Rom. 6:23; Gal. 6:7,8].
Gen. 4:14 Behold, You have driven me out this day from the face of the earth; [from his place of birth in the vicinity of where the Garden of Eden was located, to a strange land; he will go to the land of Nod, east of Eden, vs. 16] and from Your face I shall be hidden; [there is no punishment greater than to be separated from God; all who refuse to serve God will have His face hidden from them in all eternity; Paul uses this idea to describe eternal punishment, “These shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power,” 2 Thes. 1:9] and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond [wanderer] on the earth, and it shall come to pass, that whoever finds me will slay me“ [he feared the same violent act that he had done to his brother, vs. 8; the population of the earth was evidently growing by this time, and he feared what would happen to him in the future].
Gen. 4:15 And the LORD said to him, “Therefore whoever slays Cain, [see vs. 1] vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold“ [seven is a complete number, therefore a complete punishment is promised, even more than placed on Cain; God would not allow others to take vengeance, this belongs only to God: “Vengeance is Mine, I will repay, says the Lord,” Rom. 12:19]. And the LORD set a mark [a sign] on Cain, lest anyone finding him should kill him [not a physical mark, but a sign; we are not told what this sign for Cain was, but it was evident to others so that he would be protected].
Gen. 4:16 And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, [his home where God’s presence had been felt from the beginning] and dwelt in the land of Nod [means wandering; this is the only place in the Bible that Nod is mentioned] on the east of Eden [the geographical setting is not definitely known, however, some have thought it to be in the area of Arabia].
Gen. 4:17 And Cain [see vs. 1] knew [intimately or sexually] his wife, [he was obviously married to his sister which was later forbidden] and she conceived, and bore E´noch [means dedicated]. And he [Cain] built a city, and called the name of the city after the name of his son, Enoch.
Gen. 4:18 And to E´noch [means dedicated] was born I´rad; [means fugitive; grandson of Cain] and I´rad begot Me-hu´ja-el; [means smitten by God] and Me-hu´ja-el begot Me-thu´-sa-el, [means man of God] and Me-thu´-sa-el, begot La´-mech [possibly means a strong young man; the fifth in descent from Cain; only he and Enoch (in the lineage of Cain) have some of their history recorded].
Gen. 4:19 And La´-mech [see vs. 18] took to him two wives: [this is the first record of polygamy in marriage; God’s original law specified one man and one woman, Gen. 2:24; Mt. 19:5,6; this violation has brought heartaches to many over the centuries] the name of the one was Adah, [means adornment, beauty] and the name of the other was Zil´lah [means a shadow; these two women, along with Lamech’s daughter Naamah and Eve, are the only women whose names are mentioned in Genesis before the flood].
Gen. 4:20 And Adah [means adornment, beauty] bore Ja´bal [means stream]. He was the father of those who dwell in tents and of those who have cattle.
Gen. 4:21 And his brother’s name was Ja´bal. He was the father [the inventor] of all those who handle the harp [lyre] and organ [generally a wind instrument; pipe].
Gen. 4:22 And Zil´lah, [see vs. 19] she also bore Tu´bal–Cain, an instructor of every metal worker in brass and iron [the first smith on record to give instructions on how to make things from brass and iron]. And the sister of Tu´bal–Cain was Na´-mah [means pleasant; one of four women named in Genesis before the flood, see vs. 19].
Gen. 4:23 And La´mech [see vs. 18] said to his wives, Adah and Zil´lah, [this begins a poem or song by Lamech to his wives; the oldest record of poetry] “Hear my voice; you wives of La´mech, listen to my speech. For I have slain a man for wounding me, and a young man for hurting me [he seems to be reassuring his wives that he had the right to defend himself—the man whom he killed would have harmed him].
Gen. 4:24 If Cain [see vs. 1] shall be avenged sevenfold, [he would be, vs. 15] truly La´mech [see vs. 18] seventy and sevenfold“ [he claims even more vengeance than was promised Cain; Jesus used this same expression concerning the number of times one should forgive another, Mt. 18:21,22].
Gen. 4:25 And Adam [at the age of one hundred and thirty, Gen. 5:3] knew [intimately or sexually] his wife again, [compare, Gen. 4:1,2] and she bore a son and called his name Seth [means, appointed or put]. For she said, “God has appointed me another seed instead of Abel, [see vs. 2; by faith she believed that Seth would be another Abel] whom Cain slew“ [Gen. 4:8].
Gen. 4:26 And as to Seth, [means, appointed or put] to him also there was born a son; and he called his name E´nosh [also called Enos, Lk. 3:38]. Then began men to call on the name of the LORD [renewed their worship to God].
Gen. 5:1 This is the book of the generations [register or account] of Adam [means one made or produced]. In the day that God created man, He made him in the likeness of God;
Gen. 5:2 male and female He created them, [Gen. 1:26,27] and blessed them and called their name Adam [means one made or produced] in the day they were created.
Gen. 5:3 And Adam [see vs. 2] lived one hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, [God made Adam in His own image and capable of living on and on, but Adam sinned and became a mortal; this son was also mortal] after his image, and called his name Seth [means appointed or put].
Gen. 5:4 And the days of Adam [see vs. 2] after he begot Seth [see vs. 3] were eight hundred years; and he begot sons and daughters [note: there were many years between Seth and these other sons and daughters].
Gen. 5:5 And all the days that Adam [see vs. 2] lived were nine hundred and thirty years; [Adam lacked only thirty-nine years living as long as the oldest recorded man, Methuselah, Gen. 5:27] and he died [just as God had promised, Gen. 3:19].
Gen. 5:6 And Seth [means appointed or put] lived one hundred and five years, and begot E´nosh [also called Enos, Lk. 3:38].
Gen. 5:7 And Seth [means appointed or put] lived after he begot E´nosh [also called Enos, Lk. 3:38] eight hundred and seven years, and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 5:8 And all the days of Seth [means appointed or put] were nine hundred and twelve years; and he died.
Gen. 5:9 And E´nosh [also called Enos, Lk. 3:38] lived ninety years, and begot Ca-i´nan [means possession].
Gen. 5:10 And E´nosh [also called Enos, Lk. 3:38] lived after he begot Ca-i´nan [means possession] eight hundred and fifteen years, and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 5:11 And all the days of E´nosh [also called Enos, Lk. 3:38] were nine hundred and five years; and he died.
Gen. 5:12 And Ca-i´nan [means possession] lived seventy years, and begot Ma-ha´la-le-el [means praise of God].
Gen. 5:13 And Ca-i´nan [means possession] lived after he begot Ma-ha´la-le-el [means praise of God] eight hundred and forty years, and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 5:14 And all the days of Ca-i´nan [means possession] were nine hundred and ten years; and he died.
Gen. 5:15 And Ma-ha´la-le-el [means praise of God] lived sixty–five years, and begot Ja´red [means descent].
Gen. 5:16 And Ma-ha´la-le-el [means praise of God] lived after he begot Ja´red [means descent] eight hundred and thirty years, and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 5:17 And all the days of Ma-ha´la-le-el [means praise of God] were eight hundred ninety–five years; and he died.
Gen. 5:18 And Ja´red [means descent] lived one hundred and sixty–two years, and he begot E´noch [means dedicated].
Gen. 5:19 And Ja´red [means descent] lived after he begot E´noch [means dedicated] eight hundred years, and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 5:20 And all the days of Ja´red [means descent] were nine hundred and sixty–two years; and he died.
Gen. 5:21 And E´noch [means dedicated] lived sixty–five years, and begot Me-thu´se-lah [means man of the dart].
Gen. 5:22 And E´noch [means dedicated] walked with God after he begot Me-thu´se-lah [means man of the dart] three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 5:23 And all the days of E´noch [means dedicated] were three hundred sixty–five years.
Gen. 5:24 And E´noch [means dedicated] walked with God; and he was not, for God took him [he was one of two men recorded in the Bible who went to God without death; the other one was Elijah, 2 Kgs. 2:3,11].
Gen. 5:25 And Me-thu´se-lah [means man of the dart] lived one hundred and eighty–seven years, and begot La´mech [not the same man who was the fifth lineal descent of Cain, Gen. 4:18-24; this Lamech mentioned in this verse is the father of Noah, vss. 28,29].
Gen. 5:26 And Me-thu´se-lah [means man of the dart] lived after he begot La´mech [see vs. 25] seven hundred and eighty–two years, and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 5:27 And all the days of Me-thu´se-lah [means man of the dart] were nine hundred and sixty–nine years; and he died [the oldest recorded person in the Bible; however, like all others, he met his appointment of death, Heb. 9:27].
Gen. 5:28 And La´mech [father of Noah, see vss. 25,29] lived one hundred eighty–two years, and begot a son.
Gen. 5:29 And he called his name Noah, [means rest] saying, “This same one shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands, [Gen. 3:17] because of the ground which the LORD has cursed“ [as Noah’s name signifies, it is foretold that he would bring rest and comfort; he is the tenth in descent from Adam in the line of Seth].
Gen. 5:30 And La´mech [father of Noah, see vss. 25,29] lived after he begot Noah [means rest] five hundred and ninety–five years, and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 5:31 And all the days of La´mech [father of Noah, see vs. 25,29] were seven hundred and seventy–seven years; and he died.
Gen. 5:32 And Noah [means rest] was five hundred years old, and Noah [means rest] begot [began having these sons] Shem, Ham, and Ja´pheth [Gen. 6:10; 7:13; usually these sons would be listed from the oldest to the youngest, but this doesn’t seem to be so; Japheth is called the elder, Gen. 10:21, and Ham is called Noah’s younger son, Gen. 9:24].
A Sinful Human Race
Gen. 6:1 And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, [over the years, the human race had multiplied in number as God had commanded, Gen. 1:28] and daughters were born to them,
Gen. 6:2 that the sons of God [not angels, but the more godly who came from the line of Seth] saw the daughters of men [the ungodly descendants of Cain, guided by lustful things] that they were fair; [physical attraction alone should not be the guideline for choosing a person to marry] and they took them wives of all whom they chose [these mixed marriages between the God-fearing and those following the flesh will eventually corrupt the human race, cf. Deut. 7:1-4; Paul taught, “Do not be unequally yoked together with unbelievers. For what fellowship has righteousness with lawlessness? And what communion has light with darkness?” 2 Cor. 6:14].
Gen. 6:3 And the LORD said, “My Spirit [Holy Spirit, Gen. 1:2; cf. Gal. 5:16,17] shall not strive with man forever for that he also is flesh: [sinful beings; the human race (as a whole) was sowing to the flesh, Gal. 6:7,8] yet shall his days be one hundred and twenty years“ [they had reached the point to be destroyed because of sin, but through the longsuffering of God, He promised another one hundred and twenty years; “The Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some count slackness, but is longsuffering toward us, not willing that any should perish but that all should come to repentance,” 2 Pet. 3:9].
Gen. 6:4 There were [already] giants on the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of God [descendants of Seth] came in [sexually] to the daughters of men, [descendants of Cain, vs. 2] and they bore children to them, these became mighty men who were of old, the men of renown [men who were known by others for their wickedness, vss. 5,6].
Gen. 6:5 And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, [sin had spread and had taken over the lives of most of those living on the earth] and that every [the whole] imagination of the thoughts of his heart [Prov. 23:7] was only evil continually [imagined, thought about, and practiced evil; they chose evil as their lifestyle].
Gen. 6:6 And it repented the LORD [He was sorry] that He had made man on the earth, [He regretted that He had made man, cf. 1 Sam. 15:11] and it grieved Him in His heart [God did not hate man, but rather the sinful way of life that man had chosen, Mk. 3:5].
Gen. 6:7 And the LORD said, “I will destroy man [wipe out by washing, Gen. 7:4] whom I have created [Gen. 1:26,27] from the face of the earth, both man and beast, and creeping thing, and the birds of the heavens; for it repents Me [makes Me sorry] that I have made them [only man had sinned, but because of man’s sovereignty over the other living things, God chose to destroy all].
Gen. 6:8 But Noah [means rest] found grace [the unmerited favor of God to sinful man, Eph. 2:8,9; Titus 2:11] in the eyes of the LORD [Noah certainly was not free of sin, but he was striving to live above it, and God found him blameless, vs. 9].
Gen. 6:9 These are the generations of Noah [means rest]. Noah was a just man [upright and honest; gave to all their dues] and perfect [blameless] in his generations [righteous before God, Gen. 7:1]. Noah walked with God [served God daily; the same was said of Enoch, Gen. 5:24; Noah became a preacher of righteousness, 2 Pet. 2:5].
Gen. 6:10 And Noah [means rest] begot three sons, [at the age of five hundred years, Gen. 5:32] Shem, Ham, and Ja´pheth [these three sons and their wives (along with Noah and his wife) will represent the whole human race after the destructive flood, 1 Pet. 3:20].
Gen. 6:11 The earth [its inhabitants] also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence [thought only of evil and displayed wicked actions toward others; cf. the men of Sodom, Gen. 18:20].
Gen. 6:12 And God looked upon the earth, and behold, it was corrupt; [the inhabitants were corrupt and sinful] for all flesh had corrupted their way on the earth [“The fool has said in his heart, ‘There is no God.’ They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none who does good. The LORD looks down from heaven upon the children of men, to see if there are any who understand, who seek God. They have all turned aside, they have together become corrupt; there is none who does good, No, not one,” Ps. 14:1-3].
Gen. 6:13 And God said to Noah, [means rest] “The end of all flesh has come before Me, [before My face] for the earth is filled with violence through them; [the evil people, with the exception of Noah and his family, vss. 8,9] and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.
Gen. 6:14 Make you an ark [a box or chest capable of floating on the water] of gopher wood; [thought by many to be cypress wood since this wood was later used for ships] rooms [cabins or small cells] shall you make in the ark, and shall cover it [the ark] within and without with pitch [probably bitumen or asphalt; this was used to make it waterproof].
Gen. 6:15 And this is how you shall make it: [God specifies what He wants; God is the world’s greatest architect; cf. God gave details for the tabernacle and the ark of the covenant, Ex. 25]. The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, [approximately 450 ft.] the width of it fifty cubits, [approximately 75 ft.] and the height of it thirty cubits [approximately 45 ft.; to imagine the size of this ark, we can compare it to a football field; a football field is 360 feet long (counting the end zone) by 160 feet wide; so the ark was 90 feet longer than a football field, and lacked only 85 feet being as wide].
Gen. 6:16 A window [opening for light] shall you make for the ark, [some have thought this to be an opening that continued around the roof line of the ark] and you shall finish it to a cubit above; [approximately 18 inches; some have considered a cubit twenty-two and one half inches] and the door of the ark you shall set in the side of it [only one door is mentioned for the ark; all must enter this one door]. You shall make it with lower, second, and third stories [this ark had three decks to provide ample space for all the living things as well as food in the ark].
Gen. 6:17 And behold, I do bring a flood of waters on the earth, [God will definitely cause it to rain forty days and forty nights, Gen. 7:4] to destroy all flesh, [Gen. 7:22] wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and everything that is on the earth shall die [see Gen. 7:21-23; the only exception, those who are in the ark, 2 Pet. 2:5].
Gen. 6:18 But I will establish my covenant [an agreement between two parties] with you; [with Noah and his descendants, Gen. 9:9] and you shall come into the ark—you, your sons, [Shem, Ham, Japheth] your wife, [the name of Noah’s wife is never given] and your sons’ wives [their names are never given] with you [eight souls, 2 Pet. 2:5].
Gen. 6:19 And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shall you bring into the ark, [seven pairs of clean animals will be mentioned later, see Gen. 7:2] to keep them alive with you; [instead of creating more animals after the flood, God chose to preserve what He had already created] they shall be male and female [from each pair; thus the animal kingdom can reproduce after the flood, Gen. 7:8,9,15,16].
Gen. 6:20 Of the birds after their kind, and of the cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after its kind, [gives a list to be included] two of every sort shall come to you to keep them alive [God gives Noah His complete plans; God is fully in control of what is happening in Noah’s day just as He is in control today].
Gen. 6:21 And take you for yourself of all food that is eaten, and you shall gather it to yourself; and it shall be food for you, and for them“ [a large amount of food was to be gathered for every species of animals and all other living things in the ark; a supply needed for one year, Gen. 7:6; 8:13].
Gen. 6:22 Thus Noah [means rest] did; [he had an obedient faith, Heb. 11:7] according to all [partial obedience would have failed, but Noah obeyed all, see also Gen. 7:5] that God commanded him, so he did [he prepared the ark, preached righteousness as he warned the people, 2 Pet. 2:5; received the animals, and gathered the food, Gen. 7:5,9,16].
Gen. 7:1 And the LORD said to Noah, [means rest; at the end of one hundred twenty years, Gen. 6:3] “Come you and all your house into the ark, [a box or chest capable of floating on the water] for I have seen that you are righteous before Me in this generation [Gen. 6:9; he was righteous and preached righteousness, 2 Pet. 2:5].
Gen. 7:2 Of every clean beast [for a description of what was later considered clean and unclean animals, see Lev. 11] you shall take to you by sevens, the male and his female: [these would no doubt be used for sacrifices, and later on for food; cf. the laws later given to God’s people, Deut. 14:3-20] and of beasts that are not clean by two, the male and his female [Gen. 6:19,20].
Gen. 7:3 Of birds also of the heavens by sevens, male and female, to keep seed alive on the face of all the earth [all outside the ark will be lost, Gen. 7:21].
Gen. 7:4 For yet seven days, [this is the final call or warning] and I will cause it to rain on the earth forty days and forty nights, and every living thing that I have made, I will destroy [Heb. blot out] from off the face of the earth“ [see vs. 21].
Gen. 7:5 And Noah [means rest] did according to all that the LORD commanded him [Noah was obedient from God’s first command to him to the last, Gen. 6:22].
Gen. 7:6 And Noah [means rest] was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was on the earth.
Gen. 7:7 And Noah [means rest] went in with his sons, [Shem, Ham, and Japheth, Gen. 6:10] his wife, [Noah’s wife is never named in the Bible] and his sons’ wives [they are never named in the Bible] into the ark because of the waters of the flood [the only place to survive the flood].
Gen. 7:8 Of clean beasts, of beasts that are not clean, and of birds, and of everything that creeps on the earth, [Gen. 6:19,20].
Gen. 7:9 there went in two by two to Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah [means rest; obedience to God led Noah to success].
Gen. 7:10 And it came to pass after seven days that the waters of the flood were on the earth [it seems that this period of time was required to cover the earth].
Gen. 7:11 In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, [near the beginning of this year] in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened [God had in His control all the waters below and above].
Gen. 7:12 And the rain was on the earth forty days and forty nights [God fulfilled His promise that it would rain this number of days, vs. 4].
Gen. 7:13 On the very same day [as God commanded, they obeyed] entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Ja´pheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah’s wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark—[a few, that is, eight souls in safety, while the rest of the world is lost, 1 Pet. 3:20].
Gen. 7:14 they [Noah and family] and every beast after its kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth after its kind, and every bird after its kind, every bird of every sort [Gen. 6:19,20].
Gen. 7:15 And they went in to Noah into the ark, two by two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, Gen. 6:19,20].
Gen. 7:16 And those that went in, male and female of all flesh, went in as God had commanded him; [Gen. 7:2] and the LORD shut him in [God is taking care of Noah, his family, and all those in the ark].
Gen. 7:17 And the flood [the rain, vss. 4,12] was forty days on the earth, and the waters increased [into flood stage from all the water from above and below, vs. 11] and bore up the ark, and it was lifted up above the earth [high from upon the earth].
Gen. 7:18 And the waters prevailed and increased greatly on the earth, [steadily became deeper and deeper upon the earth] and the ark went [moved] on the face of the waters [like a great ship, the ark could rise with the waters without sinking].
Gen. 7:19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly on the earth, and all the high hills that were under the whole heaven were covered [this shows the depth that the waters rose to cover all places where those on the earth might try to escape the flood; God made it impossible to survive because of their wickedness, Gen. 6:5,7].
Gen. 7:20 Fifteen cubits [22 1/2 ft.] upward the waters prevailed, [above the mountains] and the mountains were covered.
Gen. 7:21 And all flesh died that moved on the earth, [all drown from the water described in vss. 19,20] both of birds, and cattle, and beast, and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth, and every man [the only survivors were on the ark, vs. 23].
Gen. 7:22 All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was in the dry land, died [those who could not live in water].
Gen. 7:23 And every living thing was destroyed which was on the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and creeping things, and birds of the heaven. And they were destroyed from the earth [Jesus gives us this description: “For as in the days before the flood, they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark, and did not know until the flood came and took them all away, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be,” Mt. 24:38,39; cf. Lk. 17:26,27]. And Noah only remained alive, and those who were with him in the ark [“By faith Noah, being divinely warned of things not yet seen, moved with godly fear, prepared an ark for the saving of his household, by which he condemned the world and became heir of the righteousness which is according to faith,” Heb. 11:7].
Gen. 7:24 And the waters prevailed on the earth one hundred and fifty days [about five months, plus the forty days and nights that it rained, vs. 12].
Gen. 8:1 And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that were with him in the ark [remembering in the sense of continuing His care for him and all on the ark]. And God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters subsided [started going down].
Gen. 8:2 The fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were also stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained [the same God who had the power to turn them on, could turn them off; Jesus spoke and the winds and the sea obeyed Him, Mt. 8:27].
Gen. 8:3 And the waters returned from off the earth continually [He could have spoken the words and the flood would have instantly disappeared, but God chose to control the forces of nature to accomplish this; God still works through natural means to answer prayers of His children, Jas. 5:13-18]. And at the end of a hundred and fifty days the waters decreased [diminished].
Gen. 8:4 And the ark rested [became grounded and settled] in the seventh month, the seventeenth day of the month, [everything followed God’s plan even to the day of the month] on the mountains of Ará-rat [a mountain in Armenia].
Gen. 8:5 And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month. In the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen [God chose to take nearly twice as much time for the waters to go down as was required for them to rise; we are not told why, but surely it involved God’s wisdom].
Gen. 8:6 And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark that he had made [God allows him to seek the proper time to leave the ark, by making sure that the waters have dried from the earth].
Gen. 8:7 And he sent out a raven, [the color of soot or coal; a solid black bird] which went forth to and fro, [this bird was evidently flying back and forth from the ark to places away from the ark without going inside] until the waters were dried up from the earth.
Gen. 8:8 Also he sent out a dove [the first of three times] from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground [it seems that Noah could not know the condition of the waters from the flying of the raven; therefore, he sent the dove, vss. 10-12].
Gen. 8:9 But the dove found no rest [resting place] for the sole of her foot, and she returned to him into the ark, for the waters were on the face of the whole earth. Then he put out his hand and took her, and pulled her in to him into the ark [this was the information that Noah needed to know].
Gen. 8:10 And he stayed yet another seven days, and again he sent forth the dove from the ark [this was the second test and sending of the dove].
Gen. 8:11 And the dove came in to him in the evening, [perhaps for food, lodging, and loyalty to the one who had sent her out; remember, God has a hand in all things that are happening] and behold, in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off. So Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth [she had done her job well].
Gen. 8:12 And he stayed yet another seven days, and sent forth the dove, [this is the third test for the dove, cf. vss. 8,10] which did not return to him anymore [the waters are finally gone].
Gen. 8:13 And it came to pass in the six hundred and first year, [of Noah’s life] in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth; and Noah removed the covering of the ark [at least enough to see the ground] and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dried.
Gen. 8:14 And in the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth was dried [the world’s greatest flood is now history, and the silent wicked dead are asleep in disobedience, 1 Pet. 3:20].
Gen. 8:15 And God spoke to Noah, [means rest] saying,
Gen. 8:16 “Go forth from the ark, [a box or chest capable of floating on the waters] you, and your wife, and your sons, and your sons’ wives with you [the whole family had been saved from the flood].
Gen. 8:17 Bring forth with you every living thing that is with you, of all flesh, both of birds, and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creeps on the earth, [Gen. 7:21; 9:10] that they may breed abundantly on the earth, and be fruitful and multiply [become numerous] on the earth“ [they are now ready to go forth with all the living things on the ark to populate again the earth].
Gen. 8:18 And Noah [means rest] went forth, and his sons, [Shem, Ham, and Japheth] and his wife, and his sons’ wives with him.
Gen. 8:19 Every beast, every creeping thing, every bird, and whatever creeps on the earth, after their kinds, [families] went forth out of the ark [a box or chest capable of floating on the waters].
Gen. 8:20 And Noah built an altar to the LORD, [a raised place; “a high place” for burning an offering to the Lord] and took of every clean beast, and of every clean bird, [he chose from the entire stock of things clean, Gen. 7:2; cf. Lev. 11] and offered burnt offerings [an offering to God, therefore the smoke from this offering of thanksgiving and praise ascended to God, vs. 21] on the altar [a raised place; “a high place” for burning an offering to the Lord; even though Adam, Cain and Abel offered sacrifices, this is the first recorded altar mentioned in the Bible; this new world that will come from Noah and family, begins with burnt offerings on the altar].
Gen. 8:21 And the LORD smelled the sweet aroma [this offering truly pleased God; Jesus came to earth and offered for us a pleasing sacrifice: “And walk in love, as Christ also has loved us and given Himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling aroma,” Eph. 5:2]. And the LORD said in His heart, “I will not again curse the ground any more for man’s sake, for [although] the imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth; [sinful man has not changed, and God will not ignore this, but He will not allow such to be the cause of destroying mankind again with a flood, Gen. 6:5; 9:15] neither will I again smite [destroy] every living thing, as I have done [the promise applies to man and all other living things].
Gen. 8:22 While the earth remains, [as long as the earth continues] seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease“ [God promises not to interfere with the natural course of nature to punish the human race as a whole for sin; the next punishment will come to the wicked when the earth and all in it will be burned up with fervent heat at the day of judgment, 2 Pet. 3:7,10].
Gen. 9:1 And God blessed Noah [means rest] and his sons, and said to them, “Be fruitful, and multiply, [vss. 7,19; cf. Gen. 1:28] and replenish [fill] the earth [a favorite expression used often by man’s Creator, Gen. 1:28; 8:17; 17:20; 28:3; 35:11; 47:27].
Gen. 9:2 And the fear of you [not just Noah, but mankind in general] and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and on every bird of the air, on all that moves on the earth, and on all the fish of the sea; [once again man is given dominion over the living things of God’s creation, Gen. 1:28] into your hand are they delivered.
Gen. 9:3 Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you [the first mention of animal meat for food]. I have given you all things, even as the green herb [man was first given the herbs for food, Gen. 1:29; but now he is given animal meat with restrictions, vss. 4,5].
Gen. 9:4 But flesh with its life, which is its blood, you shall not eat [blood is forbidden, it is the life of a beast; this eating of blood extended into Christianity, Acts 15:20,29; 21:25].
Gen. 9:5 And surely your blood, the blood of your life I will require; [a reckoning] at the hand of every beast I will require it, and at the hand of man [this is given to proclaim the sanctity of human life]. At the hand of every man’s brother I will require the life of man [God eventually ordained the powers that be to protect human lives and to punish those who commit murder, Rom. 13:1-5].
Gen. 9:6 Whoever sheds man’s blood, [on purpose seems to be the context; the law later provided for accidental deaths, Num. 35:11, 9-28] by man shall his blood be shed; [he will render vengeance and punishment] for in the image of God He made man [to shed the blood of another, has an effect on God since He made man in His image, Gen. 1:26,27].
Gen. 9:7 And you, [Noah and his family, vs. 1] be you fruitful and multiply; bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply in it“ [the whole earth was populated from Noah’s sons, vs. 19].
Gen. 9:8 And God spoke to Noah, and to his sons with him, saying,
Gen. 9:9 “And I, behold, I establish My covenant [an agreement between two parties; in this example, God is the party who is greater, cf. Gen. 6:18] with you and with your seed after you, [this covenant will involve the future human family].
Gen. 9:10 and with every living creature [every breathing thing] that is with you: the birds, the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you, of all that go out of the ark, even every beast of the earth [His covenant included both man and living things on the earth; the Psalmist wrote, “The Lord is good to all, and His tender mercies are over all His works,” Ps. 145:9].
Gen. 9:11 And I will establish My covenant [an agreement between two parties; in this example, God is the party who is greater, cf. Gen. 6:18] with you: Never again shall all flesh be cut off by the waters of a flood; [as a universal flood that destroyed all living things, Gen. 7:21-23] never again shall there be a flood to destroy the earth“ [there will never again be a destructive flood like this one, cf. Gen. 8:21].
Gen. 9:12 And God said, “This is the token [sign, vs. 13] of the covenant [see vs. 11] which I make between Me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations: [as long as there are generations of mankind on the earth].
Gen. 9:13 I do set My bow [rainbow, Ezek. 1:28] in the cloud, and it shall be for a sign [see vs. 12] of the covenant between Me and the earth [see vs. 11].
Gen. 9:14 And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow [rainbow, Ezek. 1:28] shall be seen in the cloud;
Gen. 9:15 and I will remember My covenant [an agreement between two parties; in this example, God is the party who is greater, cf. Gen. 6:18] which is between Me and you and every living creature of all flesh; [the one that He said He would establish, vss. 9-11] and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh [this is not to say that there would be no floods, but would not be a flood to destroy all, like the one that Noah experienced].
Gen. 9:16 And the bow [rainbow, Ezek. 1:28] shall be in the cloud, and I will look on it that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is on the earth“ [the rainbow would serve to remind both parties in the covenant—God and man].
Gen. 9:17 And God said to Noah, “This is the token [sign] of the covenant, [see vs.15] which I have established between Me and all flesh that is on the earth“ [see vs. 16].
Gen. 9:18 And the sons of Noah, who went forth from the ark, were Shem, Ham, and Ja´pheth. And Ham is the father of Ca´naan [means depressed or low one; the other three sons of Ham were Cush, Mizraim, and Put, Gen. 10:6].
Gen. 9:19 These are the three sons of Noah, and from them was the whole earth overspread [populated; there was one language and one speech, Gen. 11:1].
Gen. 9:20 And Noah [means rest] began to be a husbandman, [a farmer, a man of the ground] and he planted a vineyard [if he had done this kind of work before the flood, he resumed his work, if not, he now chooses a new way of life].
Gen. 9:21 And he drank of the wine, [fermented juice; the first time wine is mentioned in the Bible] and was drunk, [intoxicated; wine in this context was fermented, and caused drunkenness; we are not told whether or not Noah knew that this wine would intoxicate him; drunkenness is a sin condemned in both the Old and New Testaments, Prov. 20:1; 23:29-32; Gal. 5:21; Eph. 5:18] and he was uncovered in his tent [due to being intoxicated, Noah may not have been aware of this].
Gen. 9:22 And Ham, the father of Ca´naan, [means depressed or low one] saw the nakedness of his father, [the sin was not just by chance seeing his father, but it must have been because of a sinful attitude concerning this incident] and told his two brothers outside [he may have asked them to come and see also; again, his attitude must have been wrong since he was condemned for his actions].
Gen. 9:23 And Shem and Ja´pheth took a garment, and laid it on both their shoulders, and went backward and covered the nakedness of their father [they refused to be a part of any kind of disrespect toward their father; an opposite attitude compared to Ham]. And their faces were backward, [to avoid seeing his nakedness] and they saw not their father’s nakedness [compare this attitude to that of Ham, vs. 22].
Gen. 9:24 And Noah [means rest] awoke from his wine, [the effects of it] and knew what his younger son had done to him [probably by inquiring why he was covered, but we are not told how he knew].
Gen. 9:25 And he said, [with a prophetic spirit] “Cursed be Ca´naan; [see vs. 22] a servant of servants he shall be to his brethren“ [this prophecy was fulfilled with the Canaanites by the leadership of Joshua, Josh. 23; by slavery, 1 Kgs. 9:20,21].
Gen. 9:26 And he said, “Blessed be the LORD God of Shem, [the descendants of Shem would include Abraham the father of the Hebrew nation, God’s chosen people who would bring a blessing (Jesus the Messiah) to all nations, Gen. 12:1-3] and Ca´naan [see vs. 22] shall be his servant.
Gen. 9:27 God enlarge Ja´pheth, [means enlargement] and let him [including his descendants] dwell in the tents of Shem; [means name] and let Ca´naan [means depressed one or low one] be his servant“ [see vs. 25].
Gen. 9:28 And Noah [means rest] lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years [Noah, the obedient one, lived this many years after all the disobedient of his day died in the flood; Noah received God’s physical and spiritual blessings].
Gen. 9:29 And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years; [only two other men are recorded as living longer than Noah, Methuselah, Gen. 5:27, and Jared, Gen. 5:20] and he died [as a man of faith, “and became heir of the righteousness which is according to faith,” Heb. 11:7; God had fully blessed this man].
Gen. 10:1 Now these are the generations [settlements of nations] of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Ja´pheth [Gen. 6:10; cf. 1 Chr. 1:5-7]. And to them were sons born after the flood [God had commanded Noah and sons to be fruitful and to multiply, Gen. 9:1,7].
Gen. 10:2 The sons of Ja´pheth: Go´mer, [means perfect; the progenitor of branches of the Celtic family] Ma´gog, [later known as a people from the north and mentioned by Ezekiel, Ezek. 38:2; 39:1-6] Madá-i, [generally thought to be the progenitor of the Medes] Ja´van [regarded as the representative or father of the Greek race] Tu´bal, Me´shech, [recognized as tributaries of Magog, Ezek. 38:2,3; 39:1; thought to be Iberians and Moschi in the north of Armenia] and Ti´ras [this name appears in no other place; thought to be the ancestors of the Thracians].
Gen. 10:3 And the sons of Go´mer: [see vs. 2] Ash´-ke-naz, [means spreading fire; there are various opinions about who came from this son; some favor dwellers of Phrygia and Bithynia, others indo-Germanic descent, or a region between the Euxine and the Caspian, see Jer. 51:27] Ri´phath, [ancient tradition identifies this name with the Riphaen Mountains, northern boundary of the world; there is much uncertainty about this name] and To-gar´-mah [probably the ancient name of Armenia; Josephus thought this to be the Phrygians, cf. Ezek. 27:14; 38:6].
Gen. 10:4 And the sons of Ja´van: [see vs. 2] E-li´shah, [means God is salvation; Ezekiel refers to these people as “the coast of Elishah,” who supplied blue and purple, Ezek. 27:7; thought to be a people of Grecian stock] Tar´shish, [thought to be the inhabitants of Cilicia whose ancient capital was Tarsus, where Paul was born; cf. 1 Kgs. 10:22; Ps. 48:7; 72:10; Isa. 60:9; Jer. 10:9; Ezek. 27:12] Kit´tim, [this name is associated with people of the Island of Cyprus] and Dodá-nim [some think this name is part of the history of the Island of Rhodes; not mentioned again in Scriptures].
Gen. 10:5 Of these were the isles [countries of the Gentiles associated with the sea, Isa. 11:11; 20:6; Jer. 25:22] of the Gentiles divided into their lands, [boundaries of Europe] everyone after his language, [this had to be after the tower of Babel when all spoke the same language, Gen. 11:1] after their families, into their nations [thus, four divisions: geographical, language or dialect, tribe, and nation].
Gen. 10:6 And the sons of Ham: Cush, [those who came from this son settled in Babylonia, Ethiopia, and Arabia] Miz´ra-im, [the usual name of Egypt in the Old Testament, including the upper and lower regions] Phut, [thought to have been the Libyans in the north of Africa] and Canaan [a people who lived, before Israel’s conquest, on the seacoast of Palestine, the whole country west of Jordan, cf. vss. 15-19; 1 Chr. 1:13].
Gen. 10:7 And the sons of Cush: [see vs. 6] Se´ba, [1 Chr. 1:8; believed to have lived north of Ethiopia] Haví-lah, [some think his people became an African tribe] Sab´tah, [thought to be the Ethiopians of Arabia] Raá-mah, [Ragma on the Persian Gulf] and Sab´te-chah [thought to have settled east of the Persian Gulf] and the sons of Raá-mah: [there seems to be a part of a city Regna near the Persian Gulf] Sheba, [founder of the Sabeans] and De´dan [settlers on the Persian Gulf].
Gen. 10:8 And Cush [see vs. 6] begot Nim´rod; [mentioned only here and 1 Chr. 1:10] he began to be a mighty one [a mighty hunter, see vs. 9] on the earth.
Gen. 10:9 He was a mighty hunter before the LORD; therefore it is said, “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before the LORD“ [he developed a reputation that set him apart as a great leader].
Gen. 10:10 And the beginning of his kingdom [evidently his first] was Ba´bel, [Babylon, “the land of Nimrod,” Micah 5:6; this became a large city] E´rech, [about eight miles south of Babylon] Ac´cad, and Cal´neh, [thought to be east of the Tigris and northeast of Babylon] in the land of Shi´nar [Babylon as distinguished from Assyria, Isa. 11:11].
Gen. 10:11 Out of that land he [Nimrod, vs. 9] went forth to As-syrí-a [a great and powerful country on the Tigris River; the prophet calls it “the land of Nimrod,” Micah 5:6] and built Nine´-veh, [the capital of Assyria] and the city Re-ho´both-Ir, [the location of this city is uncertain; some have thought it to be a suburb of Nineveh] and Ca´lah, [means completion, old age; one of the most ancient cities of Assyria].
Gen. 10:12 and Re´sen [means bridle] between Niné-veh and Ca´lah (the same is the great [the principal] city).
Gen. 10:13 And Miz´ra-im [the usual name of Egypt in the Old Testament] begot Lu´dim, [a Mizraite people or tribe thought to have settled west of Egypt] Aná-mim, [a Mizraite tribe or people, 1 Chr. 1:11] Le´ha-bim, [thought to be the Libyans west of Egypt] Naph´-tu-him, [probably the people of middle Egypt].
Gen. 10:14 Path-ru´sim, [Pathros in upper Egypt] and Cas´lu-him, [thought to be the inhabitants of Colchis, who were Egyptians] (from whom came the Phi-lis´tines [a people on the Mediterranean from Egypt to Joppa; a continual enemy of Israel, see record in the books of 1&2 Sam. and 1&2 Kgs.] and Caph´to-rim) [some have thought inhabitants of either Cyprus or Crete].
Gen. 10:15 And Canaan [see vs. 6] begot Si´don [a people who built the famous city of Sidon, a commercial and maritime city on the coast of Syria] his firstborn, and Heth; [from whom came the Hittites, a powerful Syrian tribe, Gen. 23:3,5].
Gen. 10:16 the Jebú-site, [ancient inhabitants of Canaan; settled at and around Jerusalem, cf. Josh. 15:8; Jud. 19:10,11; 1 Chr. 11:4,5] the Am´-or-ite, [these dwelt on both sides of the Jordan, but mostly in the Judean mountains, see Gen. 14:7; Josh. 10:5] and the Gir´ga-site; [only the name is mentioned, Josh. 24:11].
Gen. 10:17 the Hi´vite, [means “settlers in cities, see Gen. 34:2; Josh. 9:1,7; 11:3] the Arkíte, [probably of the city of Arka, a city of Phoenicia] and the Siníte; [the inhabitants of a city or fortress near Arka called Sin or Syn].
Gen. 10:18 the Ar´vad-ite, [dwellers of Ar´vad, Aradus, now Ruad, (Josephus)] the Zemá-rite, [city of Simyra, a city of Phoenicia] and the Ha´math-ite, [inhabitants of Hamath, the principal city of upper Syria]. And afterward [after the confusion of tongues at Babel, Gen. 11:8] were the families of the Ca´naan-ites [inhabitants of Canaan who dwelt in the cities of the land] spread abroad.
Gen. 10:19 And the border of the Ca´naan-ites [see vs. 18] was from Si´don [its northern boundary] as you go toward Ge´rar [between Kadesh and Shur, Gen. 20:1] to Ga´za; [southwest corner of Palestine] as you go toward Sodom, and Go-mor´rah, Ad´mah, and Ze-boím, even to La´sha [those were cities of the plain,
see Gen. 14:2,8; Deut. 29:23; Hos. 11:8].
Gen. 10:20 These are the sons of Ham, after their families, [tribes and nations] after their languages, [dialects] in their lands and in their nations [geographical locations].
Gen. 10:21 And to Shem, the father of all the children of E´ber, [the father of the Hebrews] the elder brother of Ja´pheth, [some have thought, the brother of Japheth the elder] to him were children born.
Gen. 10:22 The children of Shem: E´lam, [father of the Elamites who dwelt in Elymais] As´shur, [the ancestors of the Assyrians, see vs. 11] Ar-phaxád, [from him, later became a region in the north of Assyria] Lud, [from him the Lydians of Asia Minor] and A´ram [father of the Armenians, later called the Syrians].
Gen. 10:23 And the children of Aram: Uz, [from him was named the land of Uz, Job 1:1; southeast of Palestine] Hul, [the ones from him were supposed to have peopled a part of Armenia] Ge´ther [uncertain about who came from him] and Mash [inhabited mount Masius in Mesopotamia].
Gen. 10:24 And Ar-phaxád [see vs. 22] begot Sa´lah, [thought to be the founder of the people Susiana] and Salah begot E´ber [the father of the Hebrews, see vs. 21].
Gen. 10:25 And to E´ber [see vs. 24] were born two sons: the name of one was Pe´leg, [means to divide] for in his days the earth was divided; [many opinions on the exact meaning of this division; some think confusion of tongues; separation of population; earth divided among sons of Noah] and his brother’s name was Jok´tan [father of the Arabians; he had thirteen sons, vss. 26-29].
Gen. 10:26 And Jok´tan begot Al-mo´dad, [some think Yemen] She´leph, [Ptolemy, belonging to the interior of Arabia] Ha´zar-ma´veth, [southeast of Arabia] Je´rah, [progenitor of a tribe of southeastern Arabia].
Gen. 10:27 Ha-do´ram, [his settlements have not been known] U´zal, [means wondering; formed inhabitants of Sana, the capital city of the Yemen, a district of Arabia, 1 Chr. 1:21] Dik´lah, [the palm-bearing region of Arabia; a tribe near the mouth of the Tiber and the Persian Gulf].
Gen. 10:28 O´bal, A-bimá-el, [these settlements are not known, but evidently founders of Arab tribes] She´ba, [a race named Sabaeans and mentioned other times in the Old Testament, cf. Gen. 10:7,28; 25:3].
Gen. 10:29 O´phir, [thought to be in Arabia, on the Persian Gulf, cf. 1 Chr. 1:23] Haví-lah, [means sandy] and Jo´bab [produced Jobabites of Ptolemy, near the Indian Sea]. All these were the sons of Jok´tan [see vss. 25,26].
Gen. 10:30 And their dwelling was from Me´sha, [thought to be the seaport of Muza] as you go toward Se´phar [or Zefar on the coast of the Hadramut] the mount of the east.
Gen. 10:31 These are the sons of Shem, [one of the sons of Noah who brought forth the line for the Hebrews, vs. 21] after their families, [tribes and nations] after their languages, [dialects] in their lands, after their nations [geographical settings].
Gen. 10:32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, [Shem, Ham, and Japheth] after their generations, [historical development] in their nations; and of these [sons] were the nations divided [or scattered] on the earth after the flood.
Gen. 11:1 And the whole earth [the entire population on the face of the earth] was of one language, and of one speech [believed by many to be the Hebrew language].
Gen. 11:2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed [in their journeying] from the east, [from the area of Assyria, Mesopotamia, and the country beyond the Euphrates; cf. Num. 23:7; Isa. 41:2] that they found a plain in the land of Shi´nar [Babylon] and they dwelt there.
Gen. 11:3 And they said one to another, “Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly“ [the brick mentioned here would be more permanent compared to sun-cured brick; their aim was to build a tower that would withstand the passing of many years]. And they had brick for stone, [since stones were not generally available for this project, they set out to make bricks as durable as stones] and they had slime [asphalt, bitumen] for mortar.
Gen. 11:4 And they said, “Come, let us build us a city [Cain is the first recorded builder of a city, Gen. 4:17] and a tower whose top may reach into the heavens; [so it could be seen many miles away, cf. Deut. 1:28] and let us make us a name, [a reputation, 2 Sam. 8:13; so it could be known by all people] lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth“ [God had commanded that the human race “fill the earth,” Gen. 9:1, but they evidently decided to rebel against this commandment].
Gen. 11:5 And the LORD came down [not in visible form as in Ex. 19:20] to see the city and the tower which the children of men had built [to view and consider what they were doing; His purpose seems to be in the form of a judicial action].
Gen. 11:6 And the LORD said, “Behold, they are one people, [they were bound together as one unit, but God wanted them to be scattered over the earth] and they all have one language, and this is what they begin to do; and now nothing will be withheld from them, that they propose to do [unity is a powerful thing even when misguided and for the wrong purpose; therefore, God admits their success in carrying out their purpose].
Gen. 11:7 Come, let us [plural, the Godhead, Mt. 3:16,17; 1 John 5:7] go down and there confound [confuse] their language, [God would give them as families and tribes different languages] that they may not understand one another’s speech“ [God has the power to control everything about man, Ex. 4:11].
Gen. 11:8 So the LORD scattered them abroad from there upon the face of all the earth, [due to confusing their language; He was successful] and they ceased building the city [they ceased to build as a united community; this stopped their purpose of rebelling against filling the earth with people as God had commanded, Gen. 9:1].
Gen. 11:9 Therefore the name of it is called Ba´bel, [means confusion] because there the LORD did confound [confuse] the language of all the earth; [evidently changed their languages into various dialects] and from there the LORD scattered them abroad upon the face of all the earth [God was successful in developing many nations and languages scattered over all the earth; consider all the languages among the Jews present on the special feast of Pentecost, Acts 2:5,6; only a miracle could make it possible for all to understand Peter and the other apostles].
Generations of Shem
Gen. 11:10 These are the generations [offspring and settlements of nations] of Shem: [the son of Noah who would generate a nation that would bring the Messiah to the world; this is the purpose of previously giving all the various lineages, to single out this most important one to form God’s special nation to bless the world, Gen. 12:3] Shem was one hundred years old, and begot Ar-phaxád [from him, later became a region in the north of Assyria] two years after the flood [this marks the time that this important series of generations began; this begins the development of God’s chosen people].
Gen. 11:11 And Shem lived after he begot Ar-phaxád [see vs. 10] five hundred years, [Shem was six hundred years old when he died] and begot sons and daughters [these other children are not named since they are not in the spiritual line to form God’s special nation].
Gen. 11:12 And Ar-phaxád [see vs. 10] lived thirty-five years, and begot Sa´lah [means the sending forth of water].
Gen. 11:13 And Ar-phaxád [see vs. 10] lived after he begot Sa´lah [see vs. 12] four hundred and three years, [Arphaxad was four hundred and thirty-eight years old when he died] and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 11:14 And Sa´lah [see vs. 12] lived thirty years, and begot E´ber [means to pass over; the ancestor of the Hebrews, Gen. 10:21].
Gen. 11:15 And Sa´lah [see vs. 12] lived after he begot E´ber [see vs. 14] four hundred and three years, [Salah was four hundred thirty-three years old when he died] and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 11:16 And E´ber [see vs. 14] lived thirty-four years, and begot Pe´leg [means division, cf. Gen. 10:25; 1 Chr. 1:19; Lk. 3:35].
Gen. 11:17 And E´ber [see vs. 14] lived after he begot Pe´leg [see vs. 16] four hundred and thirty years, [Eber was four hundred sixty-four years old when he died] and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 11:18 And Pe´leg [see vs. 16] lived thirty years, and begot Reú [means friend or friendship].
Gen. 11:19 And Pe´leg [see vs. 16] lived after he begot Reú [see vs. 18] two hundred and nine years, and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 11:20 And Reú [see vs. 18] lived thirty-two years, and begot Se´rug [means branch or vine-shoot].
Gen. 11:21 And Reú [see vs. 18] lived after he begot Se´rug [see vs. 20] two hundred and seven years, [Reu was two hundred thirty-nine years old when he died] and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 11:22 And Se´rug [see vs. 20] lived thirty years, and begot Na´hor [means snorting or panting; the grandfather of Abram].
Gen. 11:23 And Se´rug [see vs. 20] lived after he begot Na´hor [see vs. 22] two hundred years, [Se´rug was two hundred and thirty years old when he died] and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 11:24 And Na´hor [see vs. 22] lived twenty-nine years, and begot Te´rah [means turning or tarring; the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran, vs. 27; he served other gods: “Your fathers, including Te´rah, the father of Abraham and the father of Nahor, dwelt on the other side of the River in old times; and they served other gods” Josh. 24:2].
Gen. 11:25 And Na´hor [see vs. 22] lived after he begot Te´rah [see vs. 24] one hundred and nineteen years, [Nahor was one hundred forty-eight years old when he died; at this point, the age at death (in the lineages) has dropped from six hundred to one hundred forty-eight] and begot sons and daughters.
Gen. 11:26 And Te´rah [see vs. 24] lived seventy years, and begot Abram, Na´hor, and Ha´ran [these three sons are very important in God’s plan, especially Abram, see vs. 27].
Gen. 11:27 Now these are the generations of Te´rah: [means turning or tarring; see vs. 24] Te´rah begot Abram, [means a high father or father of elevation; later called Abraham, Gen. 17:5; he is named first in this list even though he may not have been the oldest son, because he would be the one chosen to become the father of a nation to bless all nations, Gen. 12:2,3] Na´hor, [means snorting or panting; he married Milcah, the daughter of his brother Haran, see vs. 29] and Ha´ran; [means a mountaineer; thought to be the youngest son of Terah, vs. 26; three children are ascribed to him, Lot, and two daughters: Milcah and Iscah, vs. 29] and Ha´ran begot Lot [means veil or covering; Abram’s nephew; Lot was the son of Haran, Abram’s brother, Gen. 11:27].
Gen. 11:28 And Ha´ran [see vs. 27] died before his father Te´rah [see vs. 24; the father survived his son] in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chal´deans [sometimes considered the whole of Babylonia, but at other times a province toward Arabia; thus in the Tigris and Euphrates valley; the capital was Babylon].
Gen. 11:29 And Abram [see vs. 27] and Na´hor [see vs. 27] took wives: the name of Abram’s wife was Sa´rai, [means my princess; her name will be later changed to Sarah which means princess; she will be a mother of nations, Gen. 17:15,16; she was also Abram’s half-sister on his father’s (Terah) side, Gen. 20:12] and the name of Na´hor’s wife, Mil´cah, [means Queen or counsel; for the names of her children, see Gen. 22:20-22] the daughter of Ha´ran [see vs. 27; Nahor married the daughter of his brother Haran; thus he married his niece; she bore Nahor eight sons, Gen. 22:20,22; marriage with close kin was later forbidden, see Lev. 18:9,14] the father of Mil´cah and the father of Is´cah [this daughter, Iscah, was a sister to Milcah and Lot, vs. 27].
Gen. 11:30 But Sa´rai [see vs. 29] was barren; [she was unable to conceive, but God would use this as a test of faith for Abraham and Sarah] she had no child [Gen. 15:2,3; 16:1].
Gen. 11:31 And Te´rah [see vs. 27] took Abram his son, and Lot [see vs. 27] the son of Haran his son’s son, [his grandson] and Sa´rai [see vs. 29] his daughter in law, his son Abram’s wife, [see vs. 29] and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chal´deans, [his native land, vs. 28] to go into the land of Ca´naan; [principally in Phoenicia; a country west of the Jordan River and the Dead Sea, and between these waters and the Mediterranean Sea; God gave this land to Abraham and his descendants, Ex. 6:4; Lev. 25:38; later known as Palestine] and they came to Ha´ran [this is a city, and not to be confused with Terah’s son, Haran; this city was northwest of Ur, following the general path up the Euphrates River; Haran is also called Mesopotamia, Gen. 24:10, and Padan Aram, Gen. 25:20] and dwelt there.
Gen. 11:32 And the days of Te´rah [see vs. 24] were two hundred and five years, and Te´rah died in Ha´ran [see vs. 31].
God Calls Abram
Gen. 12:1 Now the LORD had said to Abram, [He had also called Abram from the Ur of the Chaldeans; Stephen spoke of this in his New Testament sermon: “The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham when he was in Mesopotamia, before he dwelt in Haran,” Acts 7:2; this call also came to Abram at Haran, see Gen. 11:31,32] “Get out of your country, [first step, Ur of the Chaldeans, Gen. 15:7; second step, Haran, vs. 4; in both places, Abram left the many comfortable conveniences to experience a life of uncertainty] and from your kindred, [this represented even a greater sacrifice than leaving the comforts of his country; the ties of relatives were extremely strong in Abraham’s day] and from your father’s house, [the patriarchal family was a close unit with the father as the head; perhaps this was the greatest sacrifice of all] to a land [this will be the land of Canaan, vs. 5; cf. Gen. 11:31] that I will show you [this was, to Abram, a call to put his faith in God, “And he went out not knowing where he was going” Heb. 11:8; cf. Deut. 26:5].
Gen. 12:2 And I will make of you a great nation, [great in number, Gen. 15:5; in spiritual value, and in blessing, vs. 3; cf. Gal. 3:6-9; this great nation will come through his descendants, cf. Deut. 26:5] and I will bless you, [physically and spiritually, Gen. 22:17,18] and make your name great; [the name of Abraham was highly respected in the Old Testament, and it has been highly respected in all centuries of the New Testament; his name stands for a man of faith, Heb. 11:8,17] and you shall be a blessing [God’s blessing to Abram would result in a blessing for all families of the earth, vs. 3].
Gen. 12:3 And I will bless those who bless you, and curse him who curses you, [God will bless Abram and the nation that will come from him, and will punish their enemies, Ps. 92:9] and in you shall all families of the earth be blessed“ [through this nation, the Savior will come to earth to bless all nations].
Gen. 12:4 So Abram [means a high father or father of elevation; later called Abraham, Gen. 17:5; he is named first in this list even though he may not have been the oldest son, because he would be the one chosen to become the father of a nation to bless all nations, Gen. 12:2,3] departed, [by faith, Heb. 11:8] as the LORD had spoken to him, and Lot [means veil or covering; Abram’s nephew; Lot was the son of Haran, Abram’s brother, Gen. 11:27] went with him. And Abram was seventy-five years old when he departed out of Haran [this city was northwest of Ur, following the general path up the Euphrates River; Haran is also called Mesopotamia, Gen. 24:10, and Padan Aram, Gen. 25:20].
Gen. 12:5 And Abram [means a high father or father of elevation; later called Abraham, Gen. 17:5; cf. Gen. 11:27] took Sa´rai [means my princess; her name will later be changed to Sarah which means princess; she will be a mother of nations, Gen. 17:15,16; she was also Abram’s half-sister on his father’s (Terah) side, Gen. 20:12] his wife, and Lot [see vs. 4] his brother’s [Haran’s] son, and all their substance [possessions] that they had gathered, [what they brought from Ur, but more likely while at Haran] and the people [probably servants; later Abram armed three hundred eighteen trained servants who were born in his house, to rescue Lot, [Gen. 14:14]. whom they had gotten in Ha´ran, [see vs. 4] and they went forth to go into the land of Ca´naan. And they came into the land of Ca´naan [a country west of the Jordan River and the Dead Sea, and between these waters and the Mediterranean Sea; God gave this land to Abraham and his descendants, Ex. 6:4; Lev. 25:38; later known as Palestine].
Gen. 12:6 And Abram [means a high father or father of elevation; later called Abraham, Gen. 17:5] passed through the land to the place of She´chem, [sometimes called Sichem; a town located in central Palestine in the hill country of Ephraim, Josh. 20:7] to the oak of Mo´reh [means teacher; teacher’s oak or Terebinth, Deut. 11:30]. And the Ca´naan-ite [inhabitants of Canaan who dwelt in the cities of the land] were then in the land [even though Abram’s descendants would receive this land, others were already living here; the nation from Abram would have to conquer them; vs. 3; what a test of faith for Abram, Heb. 11:8-10].
Gen. 12:7 And the LORD appeared to Abram, [see vs. 6] and said, “Unto your seed I will give this land“ [it would not be given to Abram, but to his descendants: “And God gave him no inheritance in it, not even enough to set his foot on,” Acts 7:5]. And there he built an altar [a raised place made either of earth or stone, Ex. 20:24,25, to offer sacrifices or for a memorial; Abram will also build other altars between Bethel and Ai, at Hebron, and at Moriah, Gen. 13:18; 22:9] to the LORD, [instead of building houses for himself, Abram built altars to the Lord] who appeared to him.
Gen. 12:8 And he removed [his tents, people, and possessions] from there to the mountain on the east of Beth´-el, [means the house of God, Gen. 28:19; a city and holy place of central Palestine, about 12 miles north of Jerusalem] and pitched his tent, [a collapsible structure of cloth or skins supported on poles and secured by cords and ground pegs; the tent represents one of the earliest types of housing, Gen. 4:20; 9:21; it could be easily moved from place to place] with Beth´-el on the west [toward the Mediterranean Sea, the western boundary of Palestine] and Aí on the east; [this city was a short distance southeast of Bethel; the Israelite army will receive their first defeat under the leadership of Joshua at this place when conquering the land of Canaan, Jos. 7:2-5] and there he built an altar [see vs. 7] to the LORD, and called on the name of the LORD [Abram stayed close to the Lord; true worship to God has been needed in all generations, John 4:20-24].
Gen. 12:9 And Abram [see vs. 6] journeyed, going on still toward the South [Heb. Negev, the southern tract of Judah in southern Palestine].
Gen. 12:10 And there was a famine [means a hunger, empty stomach; usually caused by a drought] in the land, [of Canaan] and Abram [see vs. 6] went down [lower than Palestine] into Egypt [called Mizraim, Gen. 10:6; the country occupying the northeast angle of Africa; along with China, the oldest country in the world still existing; bounded on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by Palestine and the Red Sea, on the south by Nubia, and on the west by the Great Desert; it is divided into upper Egypt, the valley of the Nile, and lower Egypt, the plain of the Delta; the Nile river has made the land fertile over the years, cf. Gen. 26:1] to sojourn [live as a stranger or temporary resident] there; for the famine was grievous [heavy or severe] in the land.
Gen. 12:11 And it came to pass, when he was come near to entering Egypt, [see vs. 10; he paused to contemplate what they were doing; we are not told whether or not God directed him to enter Egypt] that he said to Sa´rai [means my princess; her name will be later changed to Sarah which means princess; she will be a mother of nations, Gen. 17:15,16; she was also Abram’s half-sister on his father’s (Terah) side, Gen. 20:12] his wife, [Gen. 11:29] “Behold now, I know that you are a fair woman [vary fair, vs. 14; a really beautiful woman] to look upon [her beauty had not faded; even though she was approximately 64 years old at this time, she had lived only half of her life; she died at the age of 127, Gen. 23:1].
Gen. 12:12 Therefore it shall come to pass, when the E-gyp´tians [natives of Egypt] see you, [one historian has written that the Egyptians were notorious for their licentiousness, P. Smith’s “History of the World,” vol. 1, ch. 6, p. 71] that they will say, ’This is his wife;’ and they will kill me, but they will let you live [so they could have her for either a wife or for the purpose of dishonor].
Gen. 12:13 Say, I pray you, that you are my sister, [Sa´rai was his half sister, Gen. 20:12; someone has suggested that this was a half truth, but a whole lie] that it may be well with me for your sake, [it would save his life, vs. 12; seems to imply that it would also be better for Sa´rai] and that my soul may live because of you“ [Abram makes a strong argument to justify this lie, however, this lie reflects his personal fear, risks his wife’s chastity, and places a stumbling block in the pathway of others; more importantly, Abram seems to distrust the power of God (who called him) to preserve his life; cf. Gen. 20:11; 26:7].
Gen. 12:14 And it came to pass, that, when Abram [see vs. 6] came into Egypt, [see vs. 10] the E-gyp´tians beheld the woman, that she was very fair [beautiful, see vs. 11].
Gen. 12:15 The princes [chief men or officials of Egypt] also of Pha´raoh [means the great house; the official titles of the kings of Egypt; compare to Caesar applied to Roman emperors; Czar to Emperors of Russia; even though many have conjectured, without an exact date, it is impossible to know which Pharaoh was reigning at this time] saw her, [the beauty of Sarai] and praised her to Pha´raoh. And the woman was taken to Pha´raoh’s house [probably into his harem with the idea of marrying her; just as Abram had predicted].
Gen. 12:16 And he treated Abram well for her sake [it was customary in Oriental countries to present presents to relatives of the bride, cf. Gen. 20:14; Ruth 4:10; 1 Sam. 18:23,25; Hos. 3:2]. And he had [presented to Abram] sheep, oxen, male donkeys, and men and maidservants, and female donkeys, and camels [such animals and servants represented the wealth of nomads, cf. Gen. 13:5; Job 1:3].
Gen. 12:17 And the LORD plagued [struck] Pha´raoh [see vs. 15] and his house with great plagues [the kind of plagues is not mentioned, but could have been diseases and other calamities; perhaps even death, cf. Ex. 9:14; Lev. 26:21; Deut. 28:59; 29:22] because of Sa´rai, [see vs. 11] Abram’s wife.
Gen. 12:18 And Pha´raoh [see vs. 15] called Abram, [see vs. 6] and said, “What is this that you have done to me? [he knew that Abram’s deception had caused the plagues, vs. 17]. Why did you not tell me that she was your wife? [Abram had purposely withheld this information and led him to believe something else, vs. 19; an inferred lie is just as much a lie as one spoken].
Gen. 12:19 Why did you say, ‘She is my sister‘? [Abram’s plan with Sarai was carried out, vs. 13] I might have taken her to be my wife [he did not take her, and he seems to be seeking what is right; perhaps the plagues had humbled him, vs. 17]. Now therefore, behold your wife; [returns Sarai to Abram] take her and go your way.“
Gen. 12:20 And Pha´raoh commanded his men [probably officers of his court] concerning him; [Abram] and they [the officers] sent him away, with his wife and all that he had [all he brought to Egypt, and all he received from Egypt; God had directed the heart and actions of this king; “The king’s heart is in the hand of the Lord, like the rivers of water, He turns it wherever He wishes” Prov. 21:1].